1. besottedwanderlust:

    Look at my poetic heart go pitter-pat!

    Especially since the owner gave me these for free!

    (via frfastor)

  2. Kant distinguishes between two different fundamental types of representation: intuitions and concepts.

    Concepts are “mediate representations” (see A68/B93). Mediate representations represent things by representing general characteristics of things. For example, consider a particular chair. The concepts “brown,” “wooden,” “chair,” and so forth are, according to Kant, mediate representations of the chair. They can represent the chair by representing general characteristics of the chair: being brown, being wooden, being a chair, and so forth.

    Intuitions are “immediate representations” (see B41), that is, representations that represent things directly. One’s perception of the chair is, according to Kant, an immediate representation. The perception represents the chair directly, and not by means of any general characteristics.

    Critique of Pure Reason From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


  3. Leibniz: The Understanding

    Philalethes : The understanding is not unlike a closet from which light is wholly shut out, with only some openings left to let in external visible images; if the images coming into such a dark room would stay there, and lie so orderly as to be found upon occasion, it would very much resemble the understanding of a man.

    Theophilus : To increase the resemblance we should have to postulate that there is a screen in this dark room to receive the species, and that it is not uniform but is diversified by folds representing items of innate knowledge; and, what is more, that this screen or membrane, being under tension, has a kind of elasticity or active force, and indeed that it acts (or reacts) in ways which are adapted both to past folds and to new ones coming from impressions from the species. This action would consist in certain vibrations or oscillations, like those we see when a cord under tension is plucked and gives off something of a musical sound. For not only do we receive images and traces in the brain, but we form new ones from them when we bring complex ideas to mind; and so the screen which represents the brain must be active and elastic. This analogy would explain reasonably well what goes on in the brain.

    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, New Essays on Human Understanding

  4. The Shadow Universe Revealed

    Recently astronomers have used a cosmic web imager to visualize simulations of dark matter, showing how the large scale structure of the universe grows and the nests in which galaxies are hatched.


  5. Beyond Energy, Matter, Time and Space

    Neuroscientists assume that these mental powers somehow emerge from the electrical signaling of neurons — the circuitry of the brain. But no one has come close to explaining how that occurs.

    That, Dr. Nagel proposes, might require another revolution: showing that mind, along with matter and energy, is “a fundamental principle of nature” — and that we live in a universe primed “to generate beings capable of comprehending it.” Rather than being a blind series of random mutations and adaptations, evolution would have a direction, maybe even a purpose.

    NYTimes: Beyond Energy, Matter, Time and Space


  6. "This world is indeed a living being endowed with a soul and intelligence … a single visible living entity containing all other living entities, which by their nature are all related."
    — Plato, Timaeus

  7. "Kant’s “Table of Categories” thus follows from his earlier table of the logical functions of judgments: just as judgments must be either singular, plural, or universal, their objects must be conceived of as unities, pluralities, or totalities; just as judgments must be either affirmative, singular, or infinite, their objects must be conceived of as realities, negations, or limitations; just as judgments must be either categorical, hypothetical, or disjunctive, their objects must be conceived of as relations of inherence and subsistence (substantia et accidens), of causality and dependence or cause and effect, and of “community” or “reciprocity between agent and patience”; and finally, just as judgments may be either problematic, assertoric, or apodictic, their objects must be conceived of as possibilities, existences, or necessities, although again these are to be understood epistemically rather than ontologically."
  9. The table of judgments
    Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason

  10. Categories of the understanding
    Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason